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Docker-Ubuntu 14.04 (64 bit) VPS with Nginx SSL and Hubot

Introduction

This guide will walk you through installation and configuration of a Docker based Rocket Chat instance on Ubuntu 14.04 (64 bit) VPS, using Nginx as a reverse SSL proxy, Hubot chatbot, and necessary scripts for automatic restart and crash recovery.

For people new to docker here’s a quick primer: Docker is a program to allow other programs and their dependencies to be run in a type of virtual container. Using this deployment guide, you do not need to download any of the rocket chat program files manually whatsoever. Docker will get everything that is needed for Rocket Chat to run. If you follow this guide closely, it provides everything from start to finish needed to install, create, and run your own Rocket Chat web instance with nginx handling SSL termination, and a Hubot chatbot keeping your general chat channel warm on those cold winter mornings.

This guide is designed for everyone, however, it is intentionally detailed to help new users who may need a little extra guidance. If you’re experienced with things like docker, nginx, etc. you may prefer one of the other deployment guides found elsewhere on this wiki.

What we’ll cover in this guide

  1. Securing the server: Firewall basics (optional)
  2. Securing the server: Fail2Ban IDS (optional)
  3. Installing Docker and Docker-Compose
  4. Editing the hosts file
  5. Installing Nginx SSL Reverse Proxy
  6. Creating docker-compose.yml
  7. Automatic start-up, and crash recovery
  8. Reboot & Status check
  9. Registering & Configuring Hubot, the chat robot
  10. FAQ & Troubleshooting
  11. TODO
  12. Known Issues

Prerequisites

This guide is written assuming that you’re starting with:

  • a clean new installation of Ubuntu 14.04 (64 bit)
  • properly configured DNS that resolves requests to your domain name

First, make sure UFW (Uncomplicated Fire Wall) is installed. It should be installed by default in Ubuntu, but if it’s not, you can install the package using apt-get. IMPORTANT: We’re going to add a firewall rule to permit your SSH connection on port 22/tcp. That is the default SSH port. If you have changed it to something else, you must modify the rule below to reflect your required port number. Failure to do so will break your SSH connection and lock you out of the server as soon as you enable the firewall!

Confirm UFW is installed:

sudo apt-get install ufw

*Set the default access rules:**

sudo ufw default deny incoming

sudo ufw default allow outgoing

Set the service rules (SSH / HTTPS):

sudo ufw allow 22/tcp

sudo ufw allow 443/tcp

Enable the firewall:

sudo ufw enable

Check the Firewall status:

sudo ufw status

If you ever add or delete rules you should reload the firewall:

sudo ufw reload

If you ever need to turn off the firewall:

sudo ufw disable

Fail2ban is an intrusion prevention software framework which protects computer servers from brute-force attacks.

Install:

sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get install fail2ban

Press Y when prompted to proceed with the install.


3. Installing Docker and Docker-Compose

Install Docker https://docs.docker.com/linux/step_one/

Install Docker-Compose version 1.4.2 (64 bit) via cURL

sudo curl -L https://github.com/docker/compose/releases/download/1.4.2/docker-compose-Linux-x86_64 > /usr/local/bin/docker-compose

Set the executable permissions:

sudo chmod +x /usr/local/bin/docker-compose

Notes: We’re using version 1.4.2 for this guide. If you wish to try a newer version, you will need to edit the cURL command to reflect the alternate version number. If you get a “Permission denied” error, your /usr/local/bin directory probably isn’t writable and you’ll need to install Compose as the superuser. Run sudo -i, then the two commands above, then exit. (credit: docker compose docs)

Confirm docker-compose is properly installed

sudo docker-compose --version

4. Editing the hosts file

If your hostname.domain.tld is mapped to a publicly routable IP, it needs to be set to your local address, for example, 127.0.0.1. Please note that the order in which localhost and your hostname are placed in this file is important; make sure localhost is first.

Edit the hosts file:

sudo nano /etc/hosts
127.0.0.1    localhost.localdomain    localhost
127.0.0.1    chat.inumio.com          chat

Save and Exit. (Press CTRL-X to save, Y for yes, then ENTER to save as current filename.)


5. Installing Nginx & SSL certificate

Install Nginx

sudo apt-get install nginx

If you don’t have a certificate already, you can grab one for free at Let’s Encrypt.

Or, if you want to use a self-signed SSL cert instead, skip ahead to Self-Signed SSL.

Install the private key (created when you generated the CSR):

sudo nano /etc/nginx/certificate.key

Open the private key and Copy the entire private key text-block from the file that was generated when you created the CSR. Right click on the terminal window and select paste to paste it into nano. Alternatively, if you have a tool such as filezilla, you can use it via SSH over FTP to upload your cert and key files instead of copy / paste.

Save and Exit.

Install the SSL certificate (note that this goes in certificate.crt, not .key):

sudo nano /etc/nginx/certificate.crt

Open the SSL Certificate provided by the SSL vendor (will probably have a .crt or .pem extension) and copy the entire text-block. Right click on the terminal window and select paste to paste it into nano.

Save and Exit.


5b. Self-Signed SSL

If you bought a SSL cert and installed it via the steps above, skip this step.

Create and install a self-signed SSL certificate:

sudo openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 365 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout /etc/nginx/certificate.key -out /etc/nginx/certificate.crt

Follow the prompts.

Tip: It is IMPORTANT that the Common Name be set properly. Enter your fully qualified domain name (FQDN) here or, if you don’t have a FQDN, use your public IP address. For example, my FQDN for the chat server is chat.inumio.com.

Save and Exit.


5c. Set Key Permissions, Dhparams, Configure NGINX

Set permissions:

sudo chmod 400 /etc/nginx/certificate.key

Generate Strong Diffie Helman group

sudo openssl dhparam -out /etc/nginx/dhparams.pem 2048

Configure Nginx:

sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/default

Delete the example in this file, and paste in the following:

# HTTPS Server
    server {
        listen 443 ssl;
        server_name chat.inumio.com;

        error_log /var/log/nginx/rocketchat_error.log;

        ssl_certificate /etc/nginx/certificate.crt;
        ssl_certificate_key /etc/nginx/certificate.key;
        ssl_dhparam /etc/nginx/dhparams.pem;
        ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
        ssl_ciphers 'ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:DHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:DHE-DSS-AES128-GCM-SHA256:kEDH+AESGCM:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA256:ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA384:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA384:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:DHE-DSS-AES128-SHA256:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA256:DHE-DSS-AES256-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA:AES128-GCM-SHA256:AES256-GCM-SHA384:AES128-SHA256:AES256-SHA256:AES128-SHA:AES256-SHA:AES:CAMELLIA:DES-CBC3-SHA:!aNULL:!eNULL:!EXPORT:!DES:!RC4:!MD5:!PSK:!aECDH:!EDH-DSS-DES-CBC3-SHA:!EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA:!KRB5-DES-CBC3-SHA';
        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
        ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:20m;
        ssl_session_timeout 180m;

        location / {
            proxy_pass http://chat.inumio.com:3000/;
            proxy_http_version 1.1;
            proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
            proxy_set_header Connection "upgrade";
            proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
            proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
            proxy_set_header X-Forward-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
            proxy_set_header X-Forward-Proto http;
            proxy_set_header X-Nginx-Proxy true;
            proxy_redirect off;
        }
    }

Edit the config Change the server name and proxy_pass to reflect your own details.

Save and Exit.

Test the config & Restart nginx:

sudo service nginx configtest && sudo service nginx restart

TIP: You can pinpoint problems in your nginx config using the following command

sudo nginx -t

6. Create the docker-compose.yml file & local directories

Create the directories:

sudo mkdir -p /var/www/rocket.chat/data/runtime/db
sudo mkdir -p /var/www/rocket.chat/data/dump

Create the docker-compose.yml file:

sudo nano /var/www/rocket.chat/docker-compose.yml
db:
  image: mongo
  volumes:
    - ./data/runtime/db:/data/db
    - ./data/dump:/dump
  command: mongod --smallfiles

rocketchat:
  image: rocketchat/rocket.chat:latest
  environment:
    - MONGO_URL=mongodb://db:27017/rocketchat
    - ROOT_URL=https://chat.inumio.com
    - Accounts_UseDNSDomainCheck=True
  links:
    - db:db
  ports:
    - 3000:3000

hubot:
  image: rocketchat/hubot-rocketchat:latest
  environment:
    - ROCKETCHAT_URL=165.114.165.21:3000
    - ROCKETCHAT_ROOM=GENERAL
    - ROCKETCHAT_USER=Botname
    - ROCKETCHAT_PASSWORD=BotPassw0rd
    - BOT_NAME=Botname
    - EXTERNAL_SCRIPTS=hubot-help,hubot-seen,hubot-links,hubot-greetings
  links:
    - rocketchat:rocketchat
# this is used to expose the hubot port for notifications on the host on port 3001, e.g. for hubot-jenkins-notifier
  ports:
    - 3001:8080
  • Edit the ROOT_URL value to be your FQDN.
  • Edit the ROCKETCHAT_URL to be your public IP address. Keep the port (3000) the same.
  • Edit ROCKETCHAT_USER, ROCKETCHAT_PASSWORD, and BOT_NAME.
  • If your Rocket.Chat docker instance is behind a proxy, set the additional env-variable “Accounts_UseDNSDomainCheck” to “false” (this only works, if these is a completely new deployment)

Save and Exit.


7. Automatic Startup & Crash Recovery

Create the upstart job for MongoDB

sudo nano /etc/init/rocketchat_mongo.conf
description "MongoDB service manager for rocketchat"

# Start MongoDB after docker is running
start on (started docker)
stop on runlevel [!2345]

# Automatically Respawn with finite limits
respawn
respawn limit 99 5

# Path to our app
chdir /var/www/rocket.chat

script
    # Showtime
    exec /usr/local/bin/docker-compose up db
end script

Save and Exit.

Create the upstart job for Rocket.Chat

sudo nano /etc/init/rocketchat_app.conf
description "Rocketchat service manager"

# Start Rocketchat only after mongo job is running
start on (started rocketchat_mongo)
stop on runlevel [!2345]

# Automatically Respawn with finite limits
respawn
respawn limit 99 5

# Path to our app
chdir /var/www/rocket.chat

script
    # Bring up rocketchat app and hubot
    exec /usr/local/bin/docker-compose up rocketchat hubot
end script

Save and Exit.


8. Reboot and Status check

We’re ready to start the show! With luck, you should be able to reboot, and the chat system will come online by itself. The first time the system runs, it will have to download a bunch of docker image files. You won’t see this occurring when you log back in. It’s important to allow the downloads to complete without interruption.

After the downloads are extracted, the total combined installation is around 800 MB, so this initial downloading may take it awhile. On a commercial server with a fast connection, this will typically take a few minutes.

Restart the server:

sudo reboot

Reconnect via SSH, and do a systems check by viewing the docker containers:

sudo docker ps -a
[![docker ps -a](https://www.imageforge.us/images/c90bd55a7b357c20b18815a5560f43f3.png)](https://www.imageforge.us/image/60kNT)

As you can see, our three docker containers are up and running: Rocket Chat, MongoDB, and Hubot. NOTE: You may see only one, or none at all if the downloads are still in progress. Be patient, and check it periodically. Eventually, it should look similar to our sample screenshot. If it does, congratulations, you did it! GREAT JOB!

Next, let’s try opening the web browser and going to your new chat room. Provided that your DNS is properly configured, you should be able to simply type your chatroom URL into the browser and open it up.

First try with HTTPS:

https://chat.inumio.com

If for some reason that fails, try HTTP: Open port 3000/tcp in the firewall, and reload to set the new policy

sudo ufw allow 3000/tcp

sudo ufw reload

Try accessing in your web browser via HTTP

http://chat.inumio.com:3000

PROBLEM? See Section 10: Troubleshooting

Once you’ve successfully reached your chat room login page, you need to register your admin account. By default, the first account to register on Rocket Chat becomes the admin, so if your chat room is public, do this immediately in order to prevent someone else from registering and becoming the administrator.

Great! I’m in, but the bot is nowhere to be seen!

No worries! In order to get your bot up and running, we must register it…


9. Registering & Configuring Hubot, the chat robot

Previously, we created the docker-compose.yml file. It’s this file where we defined the basic attributes for Hubot. We set the bot name, password, room to join, and scripts to run. Before the bot can join the chat room, we must manually create the bot using the configuration details we provided in docker-compose.yml.

https://github.com/RocketChat/hubot-rocketchat#creating-a-user-on-the-server

You can now optionally login and set some of the preferences, such as bot avatar. When finished, log out of the bot account.

With the bot account created, you can force it to join by simply rebooting the server, upon which the init script should automatically launch your chat room, and the bot should join the “General” room.

For basic command help, in the chat message box, type BOTNAME help (where BOTNAME is your bot’s name).


10. Troubleshooting & FAQ

FAQ

Q: It works! But how do I add more functionality to the bot? A: You can add more scripts to the bot by adding them to the EXTERNAL_SCRIPTS definitions: nano /var/www/rocket.chat/docker-compose.yml

Find out more about Hubot scripts here: https://github.com/RocketChat/hubot-rocketchat and here: https://github.com/hubot-scripts. Some of the available scripts for example: hubot-help, hubot-isup, hubot-4chan, hubot-strawpoll, hubot-seen, hubot-weather, hubot-hackerman, hubot-links, hubot-greetings, hubot-tell, hubot-geo, hubot-decides, hubot-praise, hubot-hello-ninja, hubot-thank-you, hubot-cool-ascii-faces, hubot-insulter, hubot-reddit

Q: How do I get email working? A: You need to configure SMTP parameters via the Administration UI (from inside rocketchat).

TROUBLESHOOTING

PROBLEM: I can’t bring up my chat page in the browser using HTTPS!

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS: If you’re able to resolve HTTP, but not HTTPS, you need to re-visit sections 4 & 5 of this guide. Make sure you’ve correctly entered the data in the hosts file, as well as in the /etc/nginx/sites-available/default file.

Check the nginx logs for any errors or other clues

sudo cat /var/log/nginx/error.log

Check the Firewall policy to make sure port 443 is open

sudo ufw status

Check your SSL installation https://www.digicert.com/help/


PROBLEM: I rebooted and waited forever for docker to download everything and start the chat room. NOTHING happened. It’s like it didn’t even try!

POSSIBLE SOLUTION: If there are errors in the docker-compose.yml file, it will fail to bring up the rocketchat app. Improperly formatted yml will cause problems.

Check upstart jobs for log errors

cd /var/log/upstart

sudo cat rocketchat_mongo.log

sudo cat rocketchat_app.log

Look for any errors in the output of those last two commands, which show the log contents of the upstart jobs we created in step 7.

Test your YML http://www.yamllint.com/ simply copy the contents of docker-compose.yml and paste into the tool.

Try to start it manually

cd /var/www/rocket.chat

/usr/local/bin/docker-compose up

If docker-compose doesn’t throw an error, and instead launches the job, then the problem is possibly in the upstart script.


PROBLEM: When I upload a file the server crashes!

POSSIBLE SOLUTION: If you’re running low on system resources, such as RAM, this can cause problems with not just performance, but stability. Make sure that you’re not running out of memory, or have any other choke points, like not enough CPU, etc. One way to check, is to issue the following command via SSH (or console) which runs TOP, a utility that will show valuable information about system resources and processes.

sudo TOP

With TOP running, try to replicate the problem while watching TOP for high loads, overloaded CPU, etc. While Rocket.Chat can be run on a single core with 512MB of memory, that’s really not enough for stable performance. If you’re seeing high values in TOP, consider upgrading your server to at least 1GB or RAM, or more.


11. TODO

  • Add section for updating & backing up

12. KNOWN ISSUES

See Also

You can also deploy using Docker and Docker Compose by following one of these guides: